Visual differentiation of lower grade glioma tissue from normal brain tissue during surgery is difficult even for expert neurosurgeons. Therefore, during tumour removal neurosurgeons rely on image guidance. It has been proven that higher rates of tumour resection prolong long-term survival of patients. We aim to implement impedance spectroscopy as a potential supportive tool to improve radical resection. During this pilot study, we evaluated the possibility to differentiate ex vivo tissue samples (biopsy samples during tumour surgeries) with the help of impedance spectroscopy. Tissues were collected from two patients and impedance spectra differences were found between low-grade glioma, high-grade glioma and healthy brain tissue.
A biosensor capable of identifying low quantities of breast cancer cells by electrical impedance spectroscopy
Breast cancer (BC) is a malignant disease with a high prevalence worldwide. The main cause of death is not the primary tumor, but instead the spread of tumor cells to distant sites. The aim of the present study was to examine a new method for the detection of cancer cells in aqueous medium using bioimpedance spectroscopy assisted with magnetic nanoparticles (MNP’s) exposure to a constant magnetic field. The spectroscopic patterns were identified for three breast cancer cell lines. Each BC cell line represents a different pathologic stage: the early stage (MCF-7), invasive phase (MDA-MB-231) and metastasis (SK-BR-3). For this purpose, bioimpedance measurements were carried out at a certain frequency range with the aid of nanoprobes, consisting of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coupled to a monoclonal antibody. The antibody was specific for the predominant cell surface protein for each cell line, which was identified by using RT-qPCR and flow cytometry. Accordingly, EpCAM corresponds to MCF-7, MUC-1 to MDA-MB-231, and HER-2 to SK-BR-3. Despite their low concentrations, BC cells could be detected by impedance spectroscopy. Hence, this methodology should permit the monitoring of circulating tumor cells (CTC) and therefore help to prevent recurrences and metastatic processes during BC treatment.
Electrochemical live monitoring of tumor cell migration out of micro-tumors on an innovative multiwell high-dense microelectrode array
Understanding of cell migration and spreading out of tumor tissue is of great interest concerning the mechanism and causes of tumor malignancy and metastases. Although there are methods available for studying cell migration on monolayer cell cultures like transwell assays, novel techniques for monitoring cell spreading out of 3D organoids or tumor tissue samples are highly required. In this context, we developed an innovative high-dense microelectrode array for impedimetric monitoring of cell migration from 3D tumor cultures. For a proof of concept, a strongly migrating breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-231) and two malignant melanoma cell lines (T30.6.9, T12.8.10ZII) were used for generating viable micro-tumor models. The migration propensity was determined by impedimetric monitoring over 144 hours, correlated by microscopy and validated by transwell assays. The impedimetric analysis of covered electrodes and the relative impedance maximum values revealed extended information regarding the contribution of proliferative effects. More strikingly, using reference populations of mitomycin C treated spheroids where proliferation was suppressed, distinction of proliferation and migration was possible. Therefore, our high-dense microelectrode array based impedimetric migration monitoring has the capability for an automated quantitative analysis system that can be easily scaled up as well as integrated in lab on chip devices.